Women have been awarded Nobel prizes in several categories pretty much since their establishment. The Peace prize tends to get all of the media but there are five major areas.
Here are a few of the women honored. The order is more categorical than sequential.
1903 Marie Sklodowska Curie for in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel. (It was a family affair!)
1935 Irene Joliot-Curie for the synthesis of new radioactive elements. (Marie's daughter)
1947 Gerty Radnitz Cori for for her discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen
1986 Rita Levi-Montalcini for discoveries of growth factors
1905 Baroness Bertha von Suttner-Peace Prize (Nobel actually created this category to honor her)
1976 Betty Williams, Co-Founder of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People).
1976 Mairead Corrigan, Co-Founder of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People).
1991 Aung San Suu Kyi, Burmese Oppositional leader and Human rights advocate.
1992 Rigoberta Menchu Tum, Campaigner for human rights, especially for indigenous peoples (Guatemala)
1909 Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlof, in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings
1928 Sigrid Undset, principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages.
1945 Gabriela Mistral, for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world.
1996 Wislawa Szymborska, for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality.
There are definitely more and the link above leads to more links for biographical information.
And here is the rest of it.